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Sure, traces of the bacteria ( Yersinia Pestis ) that cause the nasty disease were found in the New York City subway , but there’s virtually no chance that New York will succumb to the disease in its current form. But back in the 14th century, these little bacteria caused the death of about 50 million people , earning it the nickname "the Black Death" and a reputation that would last centuries. Rats aboard sailing ships get the blame for initially bringing plague-infected fleas to Europe. But during the aftermath of the Black Death (1347-1353 AD), outbreaks of plague flared up in population centers years apart for the next 400 years, leading to the idea that the disease had found a reservoir in Europe. In a paper published today in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , researchers looked at the history of outbreaks in Europe and compared them to records of tree rings in both Europe and Asia. Tree rings , the lines that accumulate inside of a tree's trunk over time, are often used by scientists to look at what climate was like in history. Years that are dry and hot might result in thinner tree rings than cooler years with plenty of precipitation. Weather might seem like an unlikely link to disease, but the bubonic plague is generally thought to be transmitted by fleas, which are more active in warm weather. "Warmer climate increases the activity of fleas and their ability to spread the bacterium from individual to individual," author of the paper Nils Christian Stenseth told New Scientist. In this case, the researchers found that the plague outbreaks were preceded by warmer temperatures in Asia, while there was no correlation between temperature patterns in Europe. The temperature spikes in Asia happened 15 years before an outbreak occurred in Europe, a lag that the researchers attribute to the length of the Silk Road trade routes. They think the pattern went something like this: Warm weather in Asia caused more fleas and small rodents like gerbils to multiply. Then when cooler weather arrived, the rodent populations tumbled, and the bounty of fleas moved on to new hosts, like camels traveling the famous trade route. After a long journey, the flea population encountered rats, another excellent rodent host, in the harbor towns and stowed away on ships bound for Europe. Source: www.popsci.com
Bubonic Plague. Just the sound of it is enough to send a twinge of worry through your mind, even though it has been quite a while since an outbreak caused massive amounts of death and devastation. Sure, traces of the bacteria (Yersinia Pestis) that
Debbie 'DeBee' Burdette, far right, executive director of the Certified Literate Community Program, presents a trophy to 2015 Spelling Bee winners Karen Carpenter, from left, Susan Prestridge and Donald Miller of the West Georgia Technical College team
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RT @VSecretPrizes: The next 80 followers of @femalebook will receive these beautiful pandora princess rings! Fav this when done http://t… 02/24/15, @mary_desire1
butter, lemon juice, sugar, apple
capers, celery, celery seed, dijon mustard, black pepper, jalapeno, kahlua, kosher salt, lemon juice, lemon, horseradish, red onions, spicy hot v8, hot sauce, vodka, worcestershire sauce
flour, baking powder, eggs, black pepper, milk, onions, salt, vegetable oil, vegetable oil
Here is the tragic, stormy life of Mary Tudor, daughter of Henry VIII and Katherine of Aragon. Her story is a chronicle of courage and faith, betrayal and treachery-set amidst the splendor, pageantry, squalor, and intrigue of sixteenth-century Europe. The history of Mary Tudor is an improbable blend of triumph, humiliation, heartbreak, and devotion-and Ms. Erickson recounts it all against the turbulent background of European politics, war, and religious strife of the mid-1500s. The result is a rare portrait of the times and of a woman elevated to unprecedented power in a world ruled and defined by men.
But not just any ring: Walter Jordan's ring ... Mitchell was joined at the presentation Monday by his wife, Linda, brothers Arthur and Roy (Sam), sister Mary and several other friends and relatives including Sharmella Morgan, Stephanie Sargent, Sophia ...
Robert and Cora are also in an excellent place right now. Maybe Isis’ death is having some influence? My favorite scene was with Mary, Tom, Rose and Edith. It was interesting to see how they interact with each other when the parents aren't around.
Fans of the country sound will hear “D-I-V-O-R-C-E,” “Til I Can Make It On My Own” and “Golden Ring” in the mix ... arrives with Bloody Mary singing “Bali Ha’i” on July 1 and plays until July 26. Chock full of well-loved show tunes ...
Mary Rings, Actress: The Hazing. Mary Rings is an actress, known for Dead Scared (2004), Someone's Knocking at the Door (2009) and Skin Game (1971).
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