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The same is likely true for mice: In 2013, scientists at MIT induced false memories of trauma in mice, and the following year, they used light to manipulate mice brains to turn painful memories into pleasant ones. Now, researchers at Queen Mary University of London have shown for the first time that insects, too, can create false memories. Using a classic Pavlovian experiment, co-authors Kathryn Hunt and Lars Chittka determined that bumblebees sometimes combine the details of past memories to form new ones. First, Chittka and Dr. Hunt trained their buzzing subjects to expect a reward if they visited two artificial flowers – one solid yellow, the other with black-and-white rings. The order didn’t matter, so long as the bee visited both flowers. In later tests, they would present a choice of the original two flower types, plus one new one. The third type was a combination of the first two, featuring yellow-and-white rings. At first, the bees consistently selected the original two flowers, the ones that offered a reward. One to three days after training, the bees became confused and started incorrectly choosing the yellow-and-white flower (up to fifty percent of the time). In other words, the bumblebees combined the memories of two previous stimuli to generate a new, false memory. “Bees might, on occasion, form merged memories of flower patterns visited in the past,” Chittka said. “Should a bee unexpectedly encounter real flowers that match these false memories, they might experience a kind of deja-vu and visit these flowers expecting a rich reward. Bees have a rather limited brain capacity, Chittka says, so it’s probably useful for them to “economize” by storing generalized memories instead of minute details. “In bees, for example, the ability to learn more than one flower type is certainly useful,” Chittka said, “as is the ability to extract commonalities of multiple flower patterns. But this very ability might come at the cost of bees merging memories from multiple sequential experiences. Chittka has studied memory in bumblebees for two decades. Bees can be raised and kept in a lab setting, so they make excellent long-term test subjects. “They are [also] exceptionally clever animals that can memorize the colors, patterns, and scents of multiple flower species – as well as. Source: www.csmonitor.com
Now, researchers at Queen Mary University of London have shown for the first time that insects, too, can create false memories. Using a classic Pavlovian experiment, co-authors Kathryn Hunt and Lars Chittka determined that bumblebees sometimes combine
FILE: Kansas City's Curley Culp drives in and hits Denver's quarterback Al Pastrana with the smashing tackle, causing Pastrana to lose the ball in the game at Kansas City, Dec. 7, 1970. Chiefs scored the only touchdown of the game. | ASSOCIATED PRESS.
RT @trieloff: "If there is a game, it's gonna be gamed" /via @webjoe #digg #reddit #producthunt http://t.co/qxOKXLYKLe 02/27/15, @webjoe
The Pentagon & ClimateChange: How Deniers Put National Sec at Risk http://t.co/R5stITETqQ Fantastic article from @rollingstone #ActOnClimate 02/27/15, @hunt_joseph
"If there is a game, it's gonna be gamed" /via @webjoe #digg #reddit #producthunt http://t.co/qxOKXLYKLe 02/27/15, @trieloff
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“I know with complete certainty that this investigation is a politically motivated ‘witch hunt’ designed to intimidate me (and ... wrote on his blog Tuesday under a photo of former Sen. Joe McCarthy. “I have no funding, declared or undeclared ...
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Joseph "Joe" Raphael Hunt (February 17, 1919 – February 2, 1945) was an American tennis player of the late 1930s and early 1940s from Southern California. He was ...